transition to self-sufficiency food plan, interim food strategy

Sustainable Food Nutrition Calculations

As Dr. Matt Marturano stated on the previous page, it is important to understand that there is no static answer to the question of ‘How much food is required?’ aside from ‘It depends’. Therefore, Dr. Marturano has provided guidelines and calculations to show us how much food is estimated to be necessary, and the detailed calculations for how much One Community will need as we are in our food self-sufficiency transition period are below.

Please see Dr. Marturano’s guide on How to Get All Your Nutrition From Food for a very detailed and useful explanation on these calculations and how you can create your own low cost, nutritionally dense meal plan.

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KEY CONSULTANT TO THE SUSTAINABLE FOOD NUTRITION CALCULATIONS

Dr. Matt Marturano: Naturopathic Doctor & Holistic Recruiter, developing a  holistic model for comprehensive digestive health

SUSTAINABLE EATING PRINCIPLES

Here are the full explanations for the set of proposed principles we adopted in designing our food plan, as suggested by our consultant Dr. Matt Marturano, and which can be adapted to suit the needs of any group (explanations for each can be found on our Sustainable Food Nutrition Calculations page):

  1. Nutritionally-complete meal plans.   Meal plans should provide a minimum of 100% of the RDA for all nutrients (vitamins and minerals), for which we will be referencing the Dietary Reference Intakes as maintained by the United States Institute of Medicine (IOM).  Diet ideologies should be discussed secondary to this foundational principle. If a proposed diet strategy is not nutritionally complete then it should be discarded.
  2. Nutrition-dense foods.   Foods should be chosen based primarily upon nutrition density, and secondarily based upon cost per unit.
  3. Minimizing spoilage/waste.   Balance should be sought between high shelf life items (e.g. dried beans and grains) and fresh vegetables and fruits.   Growing/purchasing/trade for these items should be precisely calculated, and recipes optimized for minimal waste.
  4. Food education.   Each individual member of the group should be responsible for having a basic knowledge and understanding about food, including macronutrient (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) and micronutrient (vitamin and mineral) content of food groups.  Individuals should also know how to calculate their caloric and macronutrient needs, and understand how these vary according to activity level.
  5. Replicable recipes.  Recipes should be straightforward and easily replicable by others.  
  6. Adaptable recipes.  Recipes should be easily adaptable to changes in group sizes and activity level.   Appending different styles (i.e. mediterranean style, asian style, etc.,) can allow for variety while keeping the core recipe ingredients the same and varying the herbs and spices used.
  7. Taste and presentation.   Eating of food is inherently pleasurable, and can be enhanced further through artistry, thoughtful execution, and active appreciation.
  8. Coherence.  Food policy making should seek the highest good by fostering coherence between the different individuals/groups involved in the process:  planners, budgeters, growers, shoppers, movers, cooks, cleaners, and eaters.

DETAILED CALCULATIONS

Here were our final calculations for projected food needs for 50 active 165 pound adults and below that, we will show you the 4 phases of calculations that allowed us to reach these totals:

Daily Meal Planning for Omnivore Group 

  • 100 lb vegetables
  • 50 lb root vegetables
  • 50 lb fruit
  • 16 lb [dry] whole grains
  • 16 lb [dry] legumes
  • 16 lb meats (trimmed)
  • 7 lb nuts/seeds
  • 12 dozen eggs
  • 100 servings dairy
  • 3 lb dark leafy greens

Weekly Food Procurement for Omnivore Group

  • 700 lb vegetables
  • 350 lb root vegetables
  • 350 lb fruit
  • 112 lb [dry] whole grains
  • 112 lb [dry] legumes
  • 112 lb meats (trimmed)
  • 60 lb nuts/seeds
  • 87 dozen eggs
  • 700 servings dairy
  • 21 lb dark leafy greens

Phase 1:  4 Main Questions to Determine Quantities

Below are Dr. Marturano’s four main questions to ask that affect how much food is necessary. We also included the answers that will be used in devising the transitional food strategy for One Community. 

  1. How many people are eating?   A: 50 people
  2. What is the age distribution of the people eating? A: approximately 25 – 60 years, at an average of 42.8.
  3. What is the mass (weight) and height of the people eating? A: estimated average of 178.7 lbs, 70.3 inches
  4. What is the average level of physical activity of the group that day? A: Heavy (Very active due to construction based on physical labor since we will simultaneously be in the preliminary construction phase)

As these factors will change on daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly levels, the key to sustainable nutrition is have a model that is adaptable to conditions which is why core recipes and menu plans must be responsive to these changes. With that in mind, we will use the static answers to the above questions to calculate the needs of the pioneer group during the food transition/preliminary construction phase.

NOTE:  Numbers used in calculations will be rounded for simplicity.

Calories:

  • ~2750 per person per day  (Using Mifflin-Jeor equation)
  • ~137,500 total calories per day for the group at  50 people x 2500 each
  • ~962,500 calories per week, rounded up to 1 million as a preliminary target to ensure everyone’s needs are met

Protein:

The daily protein needs of an individual varies greatly according to the level of physical activity, between 1.0 and 2.0 grams of protein per kilogram body weight. We will using the daily requirement for our estimated ‘average’ pioneer, a 165 pound very active person.

  • ~130 grams of protein per person per day
  • ~6500 grams per group of 50 people, per day
  •  ~45,500 grams (round up to 50,000 grams) per group, per week

Good/Excellent Protein Sources:  

Plant-based:

  • Legumes (beans incl. peanuts) – avg. 20% protein by mass
  • Nuts/seeds – avg. 20% protein by mass
  • Grains – avg. 10% protein by mass

Animal-based:

  • Eggs – avg. 12.5% protein by mass (6 grams per egg)
  • Dairy – avg. 12.5-25% protein by mass (7.5 grams per serving)
  • Meats (incl. chicken, fish, seafood, etc.) – avg. 25% protein by mass (with fat trimmed)

Phase 2:  Ratios

protein chart

Determine what ratio of plant-based to animal-based protein for the group. For One Community’s purposes, initial poles on Dec 4, 2015 showed a 40% omnivore, 30% vegetarian, and 30% vegan group. Modifications can be made to adjust for any changes in the group, and adjustments made for individuals.  This would give us the following protein requirements:

Animal-based protein source breakdown:

  • Eggs:  70% of the group will eat eggs, for whom they will supply 9.2% of total protein for omnivores and 13.8% for vegetarians. (7.6% of total protein for entire group.)
  • Dairy:  70% of the group will consume dairy, for whom it will supply 11.5% of total protein for omnivores and 17.3% for vegetarians. (9.6% of total protein for entire group)
  • Meat:  30% of the group will consume meat, for whom it will supply 25% of total protein. (8.3% of total protein for entire group)

Plant-based protein source breakdown:

  • Whole Grains: Will supply 31% of protein for vegans, 23% for vegetarians, and 18% for omnivores. (24% of protein for entire group.)
  • Legumes: Will supply 48% of protein for vegans, 35% for vegetarians, and 25% for omnivores (36% of protein for entire group.)
  • Nuts/seeds: Will supply 21% of protein for vegans, 12% for vegetarians, and 11% for omnivores. (14.6% of total protein for entire group.)

High-Protein Foods for Group per Week

  • Whole Grains: 144 pounds
  • Legumes:  142 pounds
  • Nuts/seeds: 63 pounds
  • Eggs: 49 dozen
  • Dairy: 594 servings
  • Meats:  41 pounds

High-Protein Foods for Group per Day

  • Whole Grains: 21 pounds
  • Legumes:  25 pounds
  • Nuts/seeds: 10 pounds
  • Eggs: 7 dozen
  • Dairy: 75 servings
  • Meats:  6 pounds

Daily Example Omnivore Protein Breakdown (130 grams total)

  • Plant-based protein:  65 grams (50%)
  • Whole Grains:  6 oz
  • Legumes: 5 oz  (¾ cup, uncooked)
  • Nuts/seeds:  2-3 oz
  • Animal-based protein:  65 grams (50%)
  • Eggs:  2 eggs
  • Dairy:  2 servings
  • Meats:  5 ounces
  • Dark leafy greens 2 cups

*NOTE ON DAIRY:  1 serving = 1 cup milk = 1 cup yogurt = 1 oz cheese (avg 7.5 grams protein per serving)

Phase 3: Meal Plan Framework

Now that we see the total average protein need for the day, we can begin the framework for an omnivore meal plan: 

(NOTE:  This is just an example, it doesn’t need to be this rigid on a day-to-day basis.)

Step 1 – Protein

  • Breakfast:  1 oz nuts/seeds, 2 eggs, 1 serving dairy, 2 oz whole grains
  • Lunch:  3 oz legumes, 1 oz nuts/seeds, 2 oz meat, 1 serving dairy, 2 oz whole grains
  • Dinner:  2 oz legumes, 3 oz meat, 1 serving dairy, 2 oz whole grains

So far that brings us to:

  • 2 oz nuts/seeds = 350 calories
  • 5 oz [dry] legumes = 500 calories
  • 2 eggs = 150 calories
  • 2 servings dairy = 250 calories
  • 5 oz meat (trimmed) = 200-300 calories
  • 6 oz whole grains = 600 calories

= Total calories from protein-containing foods: 2150 calories
and Total calories from additional carbohydrates: 600 calories

Step 2 – Carbohydrate

The next step is to figure out how much additional carbohydrate we need, by subtracting the amount of calories delivered by the protein-containing foods from the total calories, and converting that into carbohydrate sources.

  • 800 total calories from additional carbohydrates:   2750 total calories- 2150 calories from protein containing foods= 600 calories 

Now- divide the 600 calories equally into four categories: root vegetables,other  vegetables, fresh fruits , and dried fruits.

  • 225 calories = 2/3 pound root vegetables (raw)
  • 65 calories = 2/3 pounds other vegetables (raw)
  • 250 calories = 1 pound fruit (raw)
  • 55 calories = 1 oz dried fruit

Complete Omnivore Meal Plan Framework 

Based on the work we did above, add the protein list to the carbohydrate list and we get the following daily needs:

Omnivore Meals by Weight

Per One Omnivore:

  • 2 oz nuts/seeds
  • 5 oz [dry] legumes
  • 2 eggs
  • 2 servings dairy
  • 5 oz meat (trimmed)
  • 1/3 lb other vegetables
  • 2/3 lb root vegetables
  • 6 oz whole grain
  • 1 lb fresh fruit 
  • 1 oz dried fruit
  • 2 cups dark leafy greens

Daily Meal Plan for 50 Person Omnivore Group 

  • 100 oz nuts/seeds
  • 250 oz [dry] legumes
  • 150 eggs
  • 100 servings dairy
  • 250 oz meat (trimmed)
  • 100 lb vegetables
  • 50 lb root vegetables
  • 250 oz whole grain
  • 50 lb fruit 
  • 21 lb dark leafy greens

Omnivore Group Weekly Plan

  • 43.75 lbs nuts/seeds
  • 110 lbs [dry] legumes
  • 1050 eggs
  • 700 servings dairy
  • 110 lbs meat (trimmed)
  • 700 lb vegetables

    • Cruciferous veggies (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, etc.) 35 lb total per week
    • Alliums (onions, garlic, leeks, shallots, etc.) 35 lb total per week
    • Mushrooms (crimini, maitake, shiitake, oyster, etc.) 35 lb per week
    • Nightshades (tomatoes, eggplant, peppers) 35 lb total per week
    • Misc/Other (celery, carrots, artichoke, asparagus, fennel, okra, squashes, etc.) remainder
  • 350  lb root vegetables
  • 110 lbs whole grain
  • 350 lb fruit 
  • 21 lb dark leafy greens

Complete Vegetarian Meal Plan Framework 

In order to convert the omnivore meal plan to a vegetarian plan, we simply take the 35 grams of protein coming from meat, and distribute that among the other groups:

Vegetarian Meals by Weight

Vegetarian Daily Meal Plan Framework

  • 3 oz nuts/seeds
  • 7 oz [dry] legumes
  • 4 eggs
  • 3 servings dairy
  • 2 lb vegetables
  • 1 lb root vegetables
  • 5 oz whole grain
  • 1 lb fruit
  • 2 cups dark leafy greens

Vegetarian Weekly Group Meal Plan Framework

  • 700 lb vegetables

    • Cruciferous veggies (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, etc.) 35 lb total per week
    • Alliums (onions, garlic, leeks, shallots, etc.) 35 lb total per week
    • Mushrooms (crimini, maitake, shiitake, oyster, etc.) 35 lb per week
    • Nightshades (tomatoes, eggplant, peppers) 35 lb total per week
    • Misc/Other (celery, carrots, artichoke, asparagus, fennel, okra, squashes, etc.) remainder
  • 350 lb root vegetables
  • 350 lb fruit
  • 112 lb [dry] whole grains
  • 155  lb [dry] legumes
  • 66  lb nuts/seeds
  • 117  dozen eggs
  • 1050  servings dairy
  • 21 lb dark leafy greens

Complete Vegan Meal Plan Framework 

In order to convert the vegetarian meal plan to a vegan plan, we take the protein coming from eggs and dairy, and distribute that among the other groups:

Vegan Meals by Weight

Vegan Daily Meal Plan Framework

  • 4 oz nuts/seeds
  • 10 oz [dry] legumes
  • 2 lb vegetables
  • 1 lb root vegetables
  • 8 oz whole grain
  • 1 lb fruit
  • 2 cups dark leafy greens

Vegan Weekly Group Meal Plan Framework

  • 700 lb vegetables- suggested breakdown would include, if available, a minimum of:
    • Cruciferous veggies (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, etc.) 35 lb total per week
    • Alliums (onions, garlic, leeks, shallots, etc.) 35 lb total per week
    • Mushrooms (crimini, maitake, shiitake, oyster, etc.) 35 lb per week
    • Nightshades (tomatoes, eggplant, peppers) 35 lb total per week
    • Misc/Other (celery, carrots, artichoke, asparagus, fennel, okra, squashes, etc.) remainder
  • 350 lb root vegetables
  • 350 lb fruit
  • 175 lb [dry] whole grains
  • 224 lb [dry] legumes
  • 120 lb nuts/seeds 
  • 21 lbs dark leafy greens

Final Results: Complete Mixed Group Meal Plan Framework 

40% Omnivore, 30% Vegetarian, 30% Vegan Group of 50 Weekly Plan

  • 700 lb vegetables
    • Cruciferous veggies (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, etc.) 35 lb total per week
    • Alliums (onions, garlic, leeks, shallots, etc.) 35 lb total per week
    • Mushrooms (crimini, maitake, shiitake, oyster, etc.) 35 lb per week
    • Nightshades (tomatoes, eggplant, peppers) 35 lb total per week
    • Misc/Other (celery, carrots, artichoke, asparagus, fennel, okra, squashes, etc.) remainder
  • 350 lb root vegetables
  • 350 lb fruit
  • 188 lb [dry] whole grains
  • 188 lb [dry] legumes
  • 49 lb meats (trimmed)
  • 94 lb nuts/seeds
  • 70 dozen eggs
  • 400 servings dairy
  • 21 lb dark leafy greens

This will serve as the basic foundational framework for meal planning, and interface between the kitchen and food procurement teams, whether growing and/or shopping/trading for food.

FOOD BARS

In order to make shopping and cooking as simple as we can during construction and transition phases, we have decided to create food bars for all 3 meals each day. The breakfast bar will primarily be simple, and similar from day to day, so little will have to be done to prepare the first meal of the day. The lunch in dinner bars will serve basic staples and be complimented with freshly prepared, nutritionally balanced meals that are meant to be satisfying and delicious after a hard day’s work. The suggested quantities are based on the the basic foundational framework for meal planning above, as calculated for a group of 50 people of a 40% Omnivore, 30% Vegetarian, 30% Vegan ratio.

Breakfast Bar

Breakfast Bar, breakfast food, breakfast hot bar, open source food, food strategy, daily meal plan, breakfast plan

As needed, recipes will be included for breakfast that feature left overs from the previous day  (ex left over stir fried veggies made into fritatas, or left over potatoes used for breakfast burritos or hashes, etc.). Other than that, this is the suggested daily breakfast arrangement.

  • 10-20 cups oats (to be served both hot and cold per preference)
  • 4 dozen  eggs, scrambled
  • 1 dozen eggs, hard boiled
  • 1 gallon of ea Milk (vegan & omnivore)
  • 2 loaves of bread (for toast and/or pb&j) (adjust as needed depending on people’s food preferences)
  • One container PB, 1 container jelly, cinnamon, nutmeg, cardamom, ginger, and/ or any dessert spices
  • 5 cups raisins; 2 cups occasional rotating other dried fruit for variety
  • 5 cups combination of  sunflower and pumpkin seeds; 2 cups occasional rotating other seeds/nuts for variety
  • 20 lb bananas + rotating other fresh fruit (+ more for people that want banana based smoothies for breakfast)

Lunch and dinner recipes will be made with a weekly theme ingredient and either a legume or grain of the day. Any amounts of legumes, grains, or veggies not used in the recipes for lunch and dinner will be added to the food bar to ensure the recommended daily quantities are served.

Lunch Bar

Lunch Bar, lunch food, lunch hot bar, open source food, food strategy, daily meal plan, lunch plan

  • 16 lb root veggies
  • 5 lb mushrooms/nightshades (can be either/or/combination)
  • 5 lb cruciferous/other veg (can be either/or/combination)
  • 2.5 lb alliums
  • 3 lbs of dark leafy greens
  • Grain and/or legume of the day, amount tbd depending on what is used in the daily recipes
  • 3 dozen eggs, hard boiled
  • 1 loaf of bread (for toast and/or pb&j) (adjust as needed depending on people’s food preferences)
  • Assorted raw veggies (4 pounds)  (can be served raw for snacking/dipping/salad topping)
  • 12 cups Hummus or bean dip (cold or in a crock pot)

Dinner Bar

Dinner Bar, dinner food, dinner hot bar, open source food, food strategy, daily meal plan, dinner plan

  • 16 lb root veggies
  • 5 lb mushrooms/nightshades (can be either/or/combination)
  • 5 lb cruciferous/other veg (can be either/or/combination)
  • 2.5 lb alliums
  • 3 lbs of dark leafy greens
  • 2 dozen eggs, hard boiled
  • remainder of grain and/or legume of the day left from lunch, amount tbd depending on what is used in the daily recipes
  • 1 loaf of bread (for toast and/or pb&j) (adjust as needed depending on people’s food preferences)
  • Assorted raw veggies (2 pounds)  (can be served raw for snacking/dipping/salad topping)
  • assorted seasonal lightly cooked veggies (4 pounds total to be used in the main dinner recipe and/or on the dinner food bar)
  • 12 cups Hummus or bean dip (cold or in a crock pot)

CLICK HERE FOR THE WEEKLY RECIPE LISTS