Duplicable City Center Engineering
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One Community is designing an open source and free-shared Duplicable City Center® to save resources and help model a redefinition of how people choose to live. This page will explain the process of calculating and designing all the structural engineering details with the following sections:
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KEY CONSULTANTS TO THE STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING DETAILS FOR THIS STRUCTURE
Haoxuan “Hayes” Lei: Structural Engineer
Jin Yu: Structural Engineering Designer
Shuna Ni: Structural Engineer
DUPLICABLE CITY CENTER
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING DETAILS
One Community is designing an open source and free-shared Duplicable City Center® to help model a redefinition of how people choose to live, save resources, and function as a revenue generator and starting point for DIY and replicable sustainable city construction. It will open source 15 different templates and function as a recreation center, large-scale dining hall, large-scale laundry facility, and alternative for visitors that might not (at first) be comfortable staying in the Earthbag Village or Straw Bale Village.
1.1. What is a Duplicable City Center?
Once complete, the Duplicable City Center will be the largest open source/DIY structure in the world. As part of One Community, it will be a diversely functional, ultra-eco-friendly (LEED Platinum Certifiable), space and resource saving community center designed to be replicated. It is meant to be (but doesn’t need to be) built as the central and/or starting point of any one of the seven (7) One Community sustainable village models. Its purpose is to support a redefinition of how people live by providing a space more beautiful than most people’s homes that replaces the need for individual kitchens, living rooms, laundry rooms, and other in-home recreation spaces. It is also purposed to function in conjunction with One Community’s open source nonprofit and for-profit business models as both a non-profit teacher/demonstration community, village, or city center and/or the central structure of an eco-tourism destination. To our knowledge, it will also be the first open source and DIY commercial building ever to be built.
1.2. Why Create an Open Source Duplicable City Center?
Building a duplicable city center is an opportunity for people to improve their way of living through investing resources in shared space. As part of One Community’s 4-phase global change strategy, we will demonstrate building a city center like this as providing five (5) primary benefits:
- It saves huge amounts of money and resources
- It builds Community and supports a sharing and cooperative mentality
- It is an excellent launch point for teacher/demonstration hubs to be built around the world
- It is an ultra-sustainable and modern option that will appeal to many people who might not otherwise consider joining the self-replicating teacher/demonstration community, village, and city movement. It is also brandable for people who want to make eco-tourism a revenue producing component of their off-grid strategy
- Increased affordability through our open source do-it-yourself plans and provides 15 templates for replicating all the components including complete DIY structure assembly, hydronic systems setup, the natural pool and eco hot tub, eco-laundry for 300+ people, eco-kitchen for 400+ people, DIY pallet furniture, climate battery design and implementation, advanced control and automation, sustainable energy infrastructure, LEED Platinum lighting design, LEED Platinum HVAC design, LEED Platinum materials selection and acquisition, and eco-tourism revenue generation for community construction and expansion using this structure and the other 7 villages models
In traditional society, each family home contains space for socializing with friends, preparing and eating meals, and doing laundry. We believe that we will save significant space and resources by providing shared access to a high-quality environment for these activities within our City Center instead. This, in accordance with our global change methodology, creates another path to the One Community global-change model spreading on its own. Here’s a video tour of the structure and why we think people will be happy for this alternative to traditional housing models:
The Duplicable City Center Open Source Portal (Collaborative resource and information hub)
2.1. Codes and Regulations
2.1.1. Federal/National Regulations
22.214.171.124 International Zoning Code (IZC) 2018
126.96.36.199 International Building Code 2019
188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 Cal-OSHA 29 CFR 1910 – Occupational Safety and Health Standards
220.127.116.11 Cal-OSHA 29 CFR 1926 – Safety and Health Regulations for Construction
18.104.22.168 U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) – Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
22.214.171.124 ADA Standards for Accessible Design Guidance on the ADA Standards for Accessible Design
126.96.36.199 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
188.8.131.52.1 NFPA 10 – Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers
184.108.40.206.2 NFPA 13 – Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems
220.127.116.11.3 NFPA 14 – Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems
18.104.22.168.4 NFPA 45 – Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals
22.214.171.124.5 NFPA 70 – National Electrical Code (NEC)
126.96.36.199.6 NFPA 72 – National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code
188.8.131.52.7 NFPA 75 – Standard for the Fire Protection of Information Technology Equipment
184.108.40.206.8 NFPA 80 – Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives
220.127.116.11.9 NFPA 90A – Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems
18.104.22.168.11 NFPA 101 – Life Safety CodeNFPA 90A – Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems
22.214.171.124.10 NFPA 91 – NFPA 91 – Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying, of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids
126.96.36.199.12 NFPA 252 – Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Door Assemblies
188.8.131.52.13 NFPA 2001 – Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems
184.108.40.206 SEI/ASCE7-16 – Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures: ANSI/ASCE 7-16 – New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2010
220.127.116.11 SEI/ASCE 37-02 – Design Loads on Structures during Construction
18.104.22.168 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
22.214.171.124.1 ASME A17.1 – Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators
126.96.36.199.2 ASME B30.2 – Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Single or Multiple Girder, Top Running Trolley Hoist)
188.8.131.52.3 ASME B30.11 – Monorails and Underhung Cranes
184.108.40.206 Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
220.127.116.11.1 IEEE 1100 – Recommended Practice for Powering and Grounding Electronic
18.104.22.168 American Welding Society (AWS)
22.214.171.124.1 AWS D1.1/D1.1M – Structural Welding Code-Steel
126.96.36.199.2 AWS D1.3/D1.3M – Structural Welding Code-Sheet Steel
188.8.131.52.3 AWS D14.1/D14.1M – Specification for Welding of Industrial and Mill Cranes and Other Material Handling Equipment
2.1.2. State and Local Authorities Regulations
184.108.40.206 City of Los Angeles – Los Angeles Building Code (LABC) 2017 (If applicable)
220.127.116.11 California Building Code (CBC 2019)
18.104.22.168 Local Building and Safety Officials for City or County
22.214.171.124 California Fire Code (CFC 2016), Title 24, Part 9
126.96.36.199 California Plumbing Code (CPC 2016), Title 24, Part 5
2.1.3. Steel and Cold Form Design
188.8.131.52 Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges (AISC 303-16). Chicago, IL: American Institute of Steel Construction, 2010
184.108.40.206 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC 360-10). Chicago, IL: American Institute of Steel Construction, 2010
220.127.116.11 Seismic Provision for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC 341-10). Chicago, IL: American Institute of Steel Construction, 2010
18.104.22.168 Steel Construction Manual 15th Edition
22.214.171.124 AISC 326 – Detailing for Steel Construction
126.96.36.199 Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts
188.8.131.52 AISI SG 673, Part I – Specification for the Design for Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
184.108.40.206 Steel Deck Institute – SDI Design Manual for Composite Decks, Form Decks and Roof Decks – No. 31
2.1.4. Concrete and Masonry Design
220.127.116.11 American Concrete Institute ACI 318-14 – Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and commentary
18.104.22.168 American Concrete Institute ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 – Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures
22.214.171.124 American Concrete Institute (ACI) – ACI 330R – Guide for the Design and Construction of Concrete Parking Lots
126.96.36.199 American Concrete Institute (ACI) – ACI 304R – Guide for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting, and Placing Concrete, 2009
2.1.5. Wood Design
188.8.131.52 American Wood Council, Code Conforming Wood Design
184.108.40.206 American Wood Council, National Design Specification (NDS)
220.127.116.11 American Wood Council, Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic
2.1.6. The Green Book
Standard Specification for Public Works Construction, 2018
Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA)
AMCA 511 – Certified Ratings Program – Product Rating Manual for Air Control Devices
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
IEEE 1100 – Recommended Practice for Powering and Grounding Electronic Equipment
2.2. Standards, Specifications, and Material Specifications
2.2.1. Material Specifications
a) ASTM A992/A992M – Standard Specification for Structural Steel Shapes
b) ASTM A36/A36M – Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel
c) ASTM A82/A82M – Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Plain, for Concrete Reinforcement
d) ASTM A307 – Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs,60 000 PSI Tensile Strength
e) ASTM F1554 – Standard Specification for Anchor Bolts, Steel, 36, 55, and 105-ksi Yield Strength
f) ASTM A325 – Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength
g) ASTM A490 – Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Alloy Steel, Heat Treated,150 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength
h) ASTM A615/A615M – Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
i) ASTM D1557 – Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort
j) ASTM E1264 – Standard Classification for Acoustical Ceiling Products
k) ASTM F1066 – Standard Specification for Vinyl Composition Floor Tile
l) ASTM F1303 – Standard Specification for Sheet Vinyl Floor Covering with Backing
m) ASTM F1344 – Standard Specification for Rubber Floor Tile
n) ASTM F1700 – Standard Specification for Solid Vinyl Floor Tile
o) ASTM F1860 – Standard Specification for Rubber Sheet Floor Covering with Backing
p) ASTM F1861 – Standard Specification for Resilient Wall Base
q) ASTM F2195 – Standard Specification for Linoleum Floor Tile
r) ASTM E 413-16 classification for Rating Sound Insulation
2.2.2. International Code Council, ICC G2 – 2010 “Guideline for Acoustics
2.2.3. Aluminum Association
18.104.22.168 Aluminum Design Manual
2.2.4. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE)
22.214.171.124 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals (I-P and SI Editions)
126.96.36.199 ASHRAE Handbook – HVAC Applications (I-P and SI Editions)
188.8.131.52 ASHRAE Handbook – Refrigeration (I-P and SI Editions)
184.108.40.206 ASHRAE 52.2 – Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size
220.127.116.11 ASHRAE 62.1 – Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality
18.104.22.168 ASHRAE 110 – Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods
22.214.171.124 ASHRAE 90551 – Fundamentals of HVAC Control Systems (I-P Edition)
126.96.36.199 ASHRAE 90552 – Fundamentals of HVAC Control Systems (SI Edition)
2.2.5. Ceilings and Interior Systems Construction Association (CISCA)
188.8.131.52 Ceiling Systems Handbook
184.108.40.206 Recommended Test Procedures for Access Floors
2.2.6. National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA)
220.127.116.11 The NRCA Roofing Manual: Steep-slope Roof Systems
18.104.22.168 The NRCA Roofing Manual: Metal Panel and SPF Roof Systems
22.214.171.124 The NRCA Roofing Manual: Membrane Roof Systems
126.96.36.199 The NRCA Roofing Manual: Architectural Metal Flashing, Condensation Control and Reroofing
188.8.131.52 NRCA Vegetative Roof Systems Manual
2.2.7. Steel Deck Institute (SDI)
184.108.40.206 Design Manual for Composite Decks, Form Decks and Roof Decks-No. 31
2.2.8. Ceiling and Interior System Construction Association (CISCA)
2.2.9. Glass Association of North America (GANA)
220.127.116.11 GANA Glazing Manual
3. DEFINITIONS AND NOMENCLATURES
- Owner (or Company): One Community
A Contractor is any entity under contract with Southern California Gas Company or Sempra Energy Utility, including a Subcontractor, with responsibility for performing work described in this document
An individual or business that contracts to perform the scope of the work, which is defined and prepared by the Contractor
- Detailed Design Engineering
Development of all required Construction Documents and drawings for IFC (Issued for Construction) stage for the construction, and detailed bill of materials (BOM) for the bulk material procurement based on the basic or Front-End-Engineering Design (FEED) package. The Detailed Design and Engineering is limited to verifying design basis but producing all Construction Documents after incorporating vendor information.
- CSA Engineering Documents
Documents which contain technical information regarding Civil, Structural, Architectural, and Geotechnical such as Design Basis/Criteria, Engineering Sketches, Conceptual Designs, Drawings, Calculations, Specifications, etc.
- Engineering Design Package
Engineering Design Package includes the Engineering Documents and Construction Documents.
- Engineering Documents
All documents including but not limited to:
Equipment Specifications, Vendor Drawings, Calculations (All disciplines), Engineering Reports (Geotechnical), Studies, Specifications, Design Criteria, Design Drawings (Conceptual), Construction Specifications, Material Specification and all other required documents which provide support and will be required to complete the project and obtain all required permits.
- Construction Documents
Written, graphic and pictorial documents (Drawings) prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for construction and obtaining a building permit (if applicable). Drawings and Specifications are considered the two (2) essential Construction Documents in this governance
- Sr./Principal Architect
A cognizant Architect who is assigned by Civil, Structural, Architectural (CSA) Engineering Group Supervisor (EGS) with over 15 years of experience in Architectural Design. Sr. Architect shall be a licensed Architect registered in the State of California (National Council of Architectural Registration Boards NCARB).
A cognizant Architect who is assigned by EGS or Sr. Architect with over 5 years of experience in Architectural Design.
Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.
A permanent structure or architectural projection of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that provides weather protection, identity or decoration. A canopy is permitted to be structurally independent or supported by attachment to a building on one or more sides.
- Engineer of Record
A California Licensed Civil (P.E.) or Structural (S.E.) Engineer who is contractually obligated to sign and seal the CSA Engineering Documents.
The party responsible for verifying the quality of all materials, installations, and workmanship furnished by the manufacturer/supplier. The inspector shall be qualified by training and experience and hold certifications or documentation of their qualifications. Unless otherwise specified in the contract documents, the inspector shall be an independent party retained by the purchaser
- Professional Engineer
An engineer, other than the engineer of record licensed as defined by the laws of the locality in which the building is to be constructed, and qualified to practice in the specialty discipline required for the work described in the contract documents.
The party who awards the contract to provide purchase order/requisition. The purchaser may be the owner or the owner’s authorized agent.
- Principal/Sr. Structural Engineer
A cognizant Structural Engineer (Preferably with master’s degree in Structural Major) who is assigned by CSA Engineering Group Supervisor with over 15 years of experience in Structural Engineering. The Principle/Sr. Structural Engineer must be a licensed Civil or Structural engineer registered in the State of California. The Principle/Sr. Structural
- Wildland – Urban Interface Fire Area
WILDLAND-URBAN INTERFACE FIRE AREA is a geographical area identified by the state as a “Fire Hazard Severity Zone” in accordance with the Public Resources Code Sections 4201 through 4204 and Government Code Sections 51175 through 51189, or other areas designated by the enforcing agency to be at a significant risk from wildfires
ADA Americans with Disabilities Act
AIA The American Institute of Architects
Cal-OSHA California Occupational Safety and Health Administration
CSA Civil, Structural, and Architectural
DBD Design Basis Document
DDE Detailed Design Engineering
EGS Engineering Group Supervisor
EIT Engineer-In-Training (Certification)
EPC Engineering – Procurement – Construction
FEED Front-End Engineering Design
G.E. Geotechnical Engineer (Registered/ Certification)
HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
ICC International Code Council
IFC Issued for Construction
IFR Issued for Review
ISA International Society of Automation
LABC Los Angeles Building Code
LADBS Los Angeles Department of Building and Safety
MAOP Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure
MBMA Metal Building Manufacturers Association
MSA Meter Set Assembly
NDS National Design Specification (for Wood Construction)
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NRCA National Roofing Contractors Association
P.E. Professional Engineer (Registered/Certification)
QA/QC Quality Assurance/Quality Control
RR Research Report Number (LADBS)
SE Structural Engineer (Registered/ Certification)
SSI Soil-Structure Interaction
4. DUPLICABLE CITY CENTER CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
The purpose of Conceptual Design of Duplicated City Center Building (hereafter Building) can be elaborated as follow:
1) Prepare Architectural plans to determining the Building envelopes (Overall Sizes)
2) Determine the minimum required size of lot based on the Building envelope and other planning and zoning requirements
3) Determine the proper Structural System and Structural Materials
4) Determine the proper material of Building (Green Building)
5) Determine the Mechanical and Electrical equipment and devices
6) Determine the required instrumentation including IT and other devices
7) Determine the method of Construction
8) Provide the estimation for bulk material and total man-hour of the Construction (Construction Planning)
9) Provide approximate budget and determine the schedule of Detailed Design phase and Construction (EPC)
Figure 1: Considered Locations for the Model Building
The Conceptual Design is considered to be a Model Building that can be constructed at various locations. The Building will be designed in accordance with all applicable codes in the United States.
In this phase, the following locations are considered:
A. State of Utah (City of Kanab and the country around it)
B. State of California (County of LA, County of Orange, and County of San Diego)
4.3. Zoning and Planning Requirements
The minimum Requirement of International Zoning Code [Ref. 18.104.22.168] shall be considered.
Prior to the selection of the site, the utility companies for Water & Sewage, Electricity, Gas and Communication shall be determined.
4.5. Municipality/Public Works
The Municipality of the selected area (Local Jurisdiction City/County) shall be determined and contacted to obtain all applicable codes and regulations.
4.6. Structural Design Considerations
The Design Criteria for Structural Design will be considered as envelope of the criteria for various locations
5. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
5.1. Definitions (Architectural)
- Building Area
The area included within surrounding exterior walls, or exterior and firewalls, exclusive of vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above.
- Floor Area , Gross
The floor area within the inside perimeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction for corridors, stairways, ramps, closets, the thickness of interior walls, columns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above. The gross floor area shall not include shafts with no openings or interior courts.
- Floor Area , Net
The actual occupied area, not including unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, ramps, toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets.
That portion of a means of egress system between the exit access and the exit discharge or public way. Exit components include exterior exit doors at the level of exit discharge, interior exit stairways and ramps, exit passageways, exterior exit stairways and ramps and horizontal exits.
- Exit Access
That portion of a means of egress system that leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an exit.
- Exit Access doorway
A door or access point along the path of egress that travels from an occupied room, area or space where the path of egress enters an intervening room, corridor, exit access stairway or ramp.
- Exit Access Ramps
A ramp within the exit access portion of the means of egress system.
- Exit Access Stairway
A stairway with the exit access portion of the means of egress system.
- Exit Discharge
That portion of a means of egress system between the termination of an exit and a public way.
- Exit Discharge, Level of
The story at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit discharge begins.
- Exit, Horizontal
An exit component consisting of fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives intended to compartmentalize portions of a building thereby creating refuge areas that afford safety from the fire and smoke from the area of fire origin.
- Exit Passageway
An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal direction to an exit or to the exit discharge.
- Flammable Gas
A material that is a gas at 68°F or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) of pressure [a material that has a boiling point of 68°F or less at 14.7 psia] which:
Is ignitable at 14.7 psia when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume with air; or
b. Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia with air of at least 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit
The limits specified shall be determined at 14.7 psi of pressure and a temperature of 68°F in accordance with ASTM E681.
- Occupant Load
The number of persons for which the means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed
Table 1 – Occupant Load Factor Based On Function Of Space
- Fixed Seating (§1004.6)
For areas having fixed seats and aisles, the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed therein. The occupant load for areas in which fixed seating is not installed, such as waiting spaces, shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004.5 and added to the number of fixed seats.
The occupant load of wheelchair spaces and the associated companion seat shall be based on one occupant for each wheelchair space and one occupant for the associated companion seat provided in accordance with Section 1108.2.3.
For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall be not less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length.
The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one person for each 24 inches of booth seat length measured at the backrest of the seating booth.
- Sound Transmission Class (STC)
A single number rating calculated in accordance with Classification ASTM E413 using values of sound transmission loss. It provides an estimate of the sound reduction provided by an assembly tested in a laboratory. (For all other related terminologies, see ICC G-2 2010)
5.2. Occupancy of the Building
The Building is designed for Multi-purpose use.
The following will elaborate the floor plans and Occupancy categories:
Table 2 – Occupancy Specifications – Basement Level
1. CBC Table 1004.1.2
2. CBC § 509.3; Incidental use shall not occupy more than 10% of the Building Area of the story in which they are located
Figure 2: Occupancy Determination – Basement Level
Table 3 Occupancy Specifications – Basement Level
Figure 3 – Occupancy Determination – 1st Level (Updated)
Table 4 – Occupancy Specification – 2nd Level
Table 5 – Occupancy Specifications – 3rd Level
Table 6 – Occupancy Specifications – 4th Level
Number of exits
Figure 4: Spaces with One Exit or Exit Access Doorway
Table 7 Occupancy Specifications Basement And First Floor
Table 8 Occupancy Specifications Second Floor
Table 9 Occupancy Specifications Third Floor
Table 10 Occupancy Specifications Fourth Floor
See 1011.2 Width and Capacity
The width of stairways shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm). See Section 1007.3 for accessible means of egress stairways.
1. A width of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) shall be permitted in:
1.1. A stairway that serves an occupant load of 50 or less cumulative for all stories; or
1.2. A stairway that provides egress to the exit discharge solely for the use of Group R-2 occupancies, provided the building it serves is 125 feet (38 100 mm) or less in height, and provided such a stairway serves not more than 30 occupants per floor.
4. Where a stairway lift is installed on stairways serving occupancies in Group R-3, or within dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2 a clear passage width not less than 20 inches (508 mm) shall be provided. If the seat and platform can be folded when not in use, the distance shall be measured from the folded position.
The required capacity of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches.
Doors to walk-in freezers and coolers less than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area shall have a maximum width of 60 inches (1524 mm).
Table 11 Occupancy Specifications Level 2
5.3.1. Allowable Area
Based on the occupancy classifications considered in Table 1 to Table 5, the Occupancy A2, A3, A4, R2, and S2 are considered for this Building. The following tables show the allowable Area for each occupancy.
5.3.2. Mixed-occupancy, multistory buildings. [CBC §506.2.4]
Each story of a mixed-occupancy building with more than one story above grade plane shall individually comply with the applicable requirements of section 508.1. For buildings with more than three stories above grade plane, the total building area shall be such that the aggregate sum of the ratios of the actual area of each story divided by the allowable area of such stories, determined in accordance with equation 5-3 based on the applicable provisions of section 508.1, shall not exceed three, provided the aggregate sum of the ratios for portions of mixed-occupancy, multistory buildings containing A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, including any other associated non-separated occupancies, shall not exceed two.
FREQUENTLY ANSWERED QUESTIONS
Q: Where can I get more information about your philosophies for world change?
Please take a look at each of these additional pages: (click icons)
Q: Why geodesic domes?
Geodesic domes were chosen for a broad diversity of reasons. First, we wanted a structure that could be purchased and shipped anywhere in the world, were uniquely attractive, and provided large open spaces that big groups of people would feel really comfortable in. Domes are beautiful, purchased as kits, and the curved walls and ceiling (in this case 35 feet or 10.7 meters high in the center) use approximately a third less surface area to enclose the same volume as a traditional box home. Geodesic domes also perform well as passively heated and cooled structures because the aerodynamics of the rounded walls encourage air to travel efficiently around inside the building. The geodesic design is also especially beneficial structurally in that the larger the building, the stronger the dome. The round structures also weather hurricanes and tornados significantly better than box structures.
Q: How does this structure fit into the global transformation and open source goals of One Community?
As this page states, the Duplicable City Center sets an example of how to save money and resources through cooperative and shared laundry, dining and food preparation, and recreation space for over 300 people. It will also produce significant revenue through its rental rooms. In addition to this, the Duplicable City Center is meant to provide a high-end and profitable option for people who either:
With our Highest Good of All philosophy being to provide something for everyone, the above three benefits of this structure specifically hold value for a higher-end and investment-focused demographic. As part of One Community’s global transformation methodology, we see this as an opportunity for corporations and other private investors to start sustainable and self-sufficient teacher/demonstration communities, villages, and cities with a traditional, contractor-buildable, and profitable building like this and then use our same community membership model to provide people with free housing or a potential revenue stream (see “Community Sponsored Business” example) in return for free labor to help build one of the 7 village models.
Investors save money and members have the potential to build themselves a house and/or a revenue stream in return for investing their time (no financial investment). On top of this, both investors and members are contributing to further spreading and sharing teacher/demonstration communities, villages, and cities.
Q: How do you expect to achieve near-100% passive cooling for this structure?
The Duplicable City Center has been designed to meet its cooling needs through exceptional venting combined with the 35-foot high dome ceilings, outstanding insulation (40+ R-value), window and structure positioning to maximize the benefits of property-specific wind patterns, and the ability to shade or cover all South-facing windows during the hottest months. The elevation of our property is also high enough to provide weather that will generally fluctuate between 30-80 Fahrenheit (0 to 25 C). For these reasons, the only non-passive cooling designed into this structure are the large-scale refrigerator and freezer and 2 swamp coolers for cooling the kitchen cooking and cutting/canning/preserving/dishwashing areas.
Q: Why are you designing this structure to be 100% off-grid?
We feel it is important to demonstrate the Duplicable City Center and village models as options that can be constructed in locations without the availability of a connect to the power grid. For this reason, we are first designing the complete One Community energy infrastructure to supply all One Community village and City Center needs without a grid connection. Once these details have been completed and open source shared, we will also conduct and open source share the cost analysis comparison for connecting to the energy grid for backup power in the winter months when solar would normally require generator backup. After this analysis, we will update our plan if on-grid development is determined to be a more sustainable and cost effective option than generators and the additional batteries and solar infrastructure we’d need to function 100% off-grid in the winter months.
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